Friday, March 26, 2010

Student Loan Reform - What Does it Mean for Me?

The recently passed healthcare reform bill will not only bring historic changes to how healthcare is provided; it will also change the way students borrow to pay for college. That’s right. The Obama proposed student loan reform was a late addition to the reconciliation bill passed last Sunday by the House. So the passage of healthcare reform this week also brought sweeping changes to federal loan programs for higher education as well as steady increases in financial aid for families with the most significant needs. The major changes to student financial aid fall into 3 categories: increases to Pell grants, elimination of the bank-based student loan program, otherwise known as the Federal Family Education Loan program or FFELP, and a modification to the loan repayment plan that will make it easier for graduates with modest income to repay their education loans (there are additional changes, though these are the three that most directly impact financial assistance for students).

Increases in the maximum Pell grants which are available to students whose families demonstrate the most significant financial need (typically income less than $45,000) will now be tied to the Consumer Price Index (though the original proposal was higher at CPI + 1%). The maximum award for 2010-2011 is $5,550 and will stay constant through the following two years. The grant size is expected to reach $5,900 by 2019-2020, nearly $1,000 a year less than that projected under President Obama’s original proposal. While the final version has been applauded, it is not expected to keep up with increases in college tuition, room and board, if history is any guide. Assuming the rise in cost of attendance continues to outpace the rate of inflation, the changes to the Pell program will do little to make college more affordable for students in the Pell eligible income bracket.

The big change in the federal loan program is the discontinuation of the bank loan option for federal student loans. The bank-based option has been available to colleges and universities since 1965 and accounted for as much as 80% of the federal student loan market. The federal government pays fees to lenders, though assumes the risk if the loans default. The Obama administration has made elimination of the FFEL program a primary goal for student aid reform, projecting a 10 year savings of $61 billion that will be used largely to support the increase in Pell grants. After July 1st all colleges and universities that participate in the federal Stafford loan program will join the Direct Loan program, shifting the administrative management from lenders to the colleges themselves.

How does this change impact students and their families? There are really two ways that borrowers will be impacted. No longer will students at colleges that participate in the FFELP program need to find a bank lender. Instead, those who apply for federally guaranteed Stafford loans will deal directly with the colleges’ financial aid offices. Secondly, the interest rate on the PLUS loans, which parents can access to pay their children’s college costs, is 7.9% with the Direct Loan program, versus 8.5% for the erstwhile bank program. With interest accruing while the student is in school, the difference can become significant over four years.

Changes to the income-based repayment plan, which became effective last July, will further ease the burden on students once they begin to repay their school loans. The purpose of the plan is to make it easier for graduates with low incomes to stay current and potentially limit their loan obligations through debt forgiveness. The bill just approved will make the repayment option available to more borrowers by lowering the debt to income threshold from 15% to 10% of discretionary income. Additionally, loans still outstanding after 20 years (versus the current 25) will be forgiven. The one catch is that this provision will not go into effect until July 1, 2014 and will only benefit those who borrow after that date.

So who are the winners and losers with the student loan reform bill? Low income students are winners, as they are now assured federal grant money that will grow with inflation. Whether it is enough to keep them from losing ground against rising college costs is in question, though doubtful. Student borrowers under the federal loan program should probably be indifferent to whether they borrow from a bank or through their college. The modified income based repayment plan is without a doubt the best deal for college graduates, though high school seniors who will start college in the fall lose out since the changes don’t become effective until July 1, 2014, the year they graduate.

Sunday, March 21, 2010

Race to Nowhere - The Dark Side of America's Achievement Culture

I want to make all of my readers aware of a new documentary film by director Vicki Abeles titled Race to Nowhere. This documentary explores the negative impact of America’s high pressured and achievement-focused culture on our nation’s youth. Are the demands and expectations placed on young people today leading to a generation of burned out, depressed and disengaged youth? This is the conclusion of many educators, therapists, and other professionals who work with students and appear in interviews throughout the film. The method of teaching is also, arguably, leaving graduates ill-prepared to enter the workplace. Educators feel pressured to teach to tests rather than develop minds and impart skills necessary to succeed. Sadly, the despair felt by many youths has had and continues to have repercussions that impact and even destroy families. Ms. Abeles’ goal is to raise awareness of this distressing trend with the hope of starting a national dialogue that challenges our beliefs about the effectiveness and sanity of our education system and culture.

While the film is not yet widely distributed, screenings are taking place around the country. The movie is coming to the New York area the week of March 22. For those of you who live in or near Westchester County, you will have the opportunity to view this enlightening documentary on Tuesday evening, March 23 at 7:30 pm at the JCC Mid-Westchester in Scarsdale, NY. Tickets can be purchased in advance at the film’s website and by going to the “Screenings” page. Whether you can attend the screening or not, I encourage you to check out the website and watch the 3 minute film trailer. I believe this is a movie every parent to see.

Thursday, March 4, 2010

What is the Value of a Liberal Arts Education?

Is a liberal arts education a luxury? With more than half of all undergraduates now choosing more “practical” majors such as business, nursing and engineering, it appears that many young people and their families are questioning the value of a liberal arts education. The question on parents’ and students’ minds today, especially given the escalating cost of a college education and the state of the economy, is will my son or daughter (or I) be employable?

This week the Chronicle of Higher Education is running a series of articles which examine what it titles ‘The New Liberal Arts.” The special report explores the question of value, and also cites the changes in college curriculum in responses to the shifting demand. Many traditional liberal arts institutions have added pre-professional programs. At the same time, several colleges with a more career-oriented focus are incorporating a liberal arts approach, placing greater emphasis on critical thinking and intellectual exploration. The idea is to help students develop important analytical and problem solving skills in addition to preparing them for a profession.

Returning to the question about the value of a liberal arts education, I wanted to share an article from the Chronicle series written by Sanford J. Ungar, the president of Goucher College and former host of National Public Radio’s “All Things Considered.” His article, “7 Major Misconceptions About the Liberal Arts,” seeks to dispel the myths that a liberal arts degree isn’t worth the cost, especially when compared to pre-professional training. Ungar’s article can be accessed through the link Mr. Ungar makes several compelling arguments, key among them is the notion that students must be prepared for change, especially given the evolving demands of society today. One thing is almost certain: many careers which will be available to the Millennial Generation in their lifetimes do not presently exist. The challenges we face today have created an even greater need for college students to graduate with a broad based education that prepares them to think critically and outside the box.

But how does that factor in the perceptions and expectations of those who make the hiring decisions? Don’t employers want to hire young people who have specialized in a particular field of study, especially in a buyer’s market where unemployment is running at 10%? According to Mr. Ungar, a 2009 survey for the Association of American Colleges and Universities found that 75% of employers nationwide encourage students to seek a liberal arts education. 89% want to see greater emphasis on communications, both orally and written. Analytical reasoning, critical thinking, creativity and the ability to innovate were also cited as important skills required by prospective employers.

One piece of advice I give to those in the midst of a job search, especially anyone who has been employed in a downsized industry: think in terms of your skill set, not your last job description. In our fast paced and changing society industries and jobs will come and go. The value of a liberal arts education will last a lifetime.